The excess casualty market faces a rough road ahead. After a difficult 2020, the market is likely to remain hard at least through 2021 and possibly into the following year. Carriers continue to reduce limits and increase premiums as they grapple with the aftereffects of underpricing in the soft market. Much of the hardening is being driven by losses in auto, and also where social inflation is leading to more so-called ‘nuclear’ verdicts. Along with auto fleets, construction, real estate, habitational and hotels stand among the more difficult markets.